Shaping global education: International agendas and governmental power. This article highlights the critical importance of structured democratic … Some countries in Latin America have provided opportunities for structured democratic voice. The three examples above reflect the challenges of implementing structured democratic voice in practice. 2nd HUMAINT Winter school on Fairness, Accountability and Transparency in Artificial Intelligence. Education reform and managerialism: Comparing the experiences of schools and colleges. 2014). (Eds.). Such partnership arrangements, however, do not make then immune to fluctuations in funding. A key underlying assumption of the short route was that “transparency (access to information) combined with participation would lead to more accountability, which in turn would improve service delivery” (Dewachter et al. Oxford: Symposium Books. Fullan, M. (2011). The 4 years between submission of the plan and its sign off by the President were marked by disagreements around public financing, specifically whether 7% or 10% of GDP should be allocated to education. 59(10), 1728–1750. While this has historically been the case in many East Asian countries (e.g., Vietnam, Lao PDR, China), some have suggested a form of ‘soft authoritarianism’ where limited space for public intervention is provided in targeted areas. Williams, J. H., & Cummings, W. K. (2005). Using illustrative examples at the regional, national, and local level, this article discusses how structured democratic voice can help re-imagine approaches to accountability while strengthening the enabling environment, increasing trust in the system, and improving policy ownership. According to this prevailing narrative, national education systems must allocate more resources to measuring and monitoring learning and underscore ineffective practices among education personnel, often portrayed as lazy or unmotivated (Alhamdan et al. 2017). In a region prioritizing economic growth over political freedom, public participation in policies related to economic prosperity is more likely (Chou and Huque 2016). In W. C. Smith (Ed. Trust in the profession is more problematic and varies across countries. Local control, illustrated by the short route, has become a mantra in the accountability literature. 12, 155. Education, accountability, and ethical demand: Can the democratic of accountability be regained? 2017–2018 Global Education Monitoring Report. In practice this was reflected in the belief that “the public has a right to expect that its resources are being used responsibly and that the public institutions are accountable for caretaking the public trust” (Supovitz 2009, p. 215). Govender, L. (2008). Public Accountability & Transparency of Charter Schools & Management Organizations Parker Baxter, Director of Knowledge for the Natl. In Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia, the final product included a Gender Action Plan with clearly delegated responsibilities for all, including the Girls’ Club Coordinator. This framework should prioritize deterring those forms of corruption that stand to most severely undermine both the quality and speed of the public health response. In other studies, externally imposed and sanction-oriented accountability systems foster situations where educators feel threatened by external actors making decisions beyond their control, thereby enhancing risk aversion and undermining trust (Sahlberg 2009; Stensaker and Harvey 2011). 10, 211–227. Largely absent in discussions of quality or accountability are the voices and views of those who work, learn, and teach in schools. Background paper for the World Development Report 2017 Governance and the Law. Trust in education can be seen as trust in the person, trust in the profession, and trust in the process (UNESCO 2017). More than 3 million people were involved in the entire process, including over 450,000 delegates. Inclusiveness and deliberativeness are about who is included in the process and the quality of the dialogue. (2015). While research is needed to identify which conditions best support the inclusion of structured democratic voice into an accountability system, several obstacles are clear. (2011). Florence, Italy. This problem involves the ability of the client or principal (in education often the parent) to have their needs met by the agent (in education, teachers are usually considered the agent). Providing space for structured democratic voice highlights this shared responsibility and the interconnectedness of actors. The growing accountability agenda in tertiary education: Progress of mixed blessing? A good School management system (or School Information Management System) facilitates transparency in school administration and creates an environment where parents can closely monitor their child’s performance, teachers can collaborate more efficiently and leakages in school budgets can be identified & prevented. Notwithstanding the challenges of building local capacity and sustaining political commitment, this article highlights the important consequences of implementing a process of structured democratic voice: in particular, sustaining educational reforms over time and meeting ambitious collective goals in education. In Grading goal four: Tensions, threats and opportunities in the sustainable development goal on quality education. The interdependence of actors is illustrated in intersecting cogs or gears. (2003). Recognizing group plurality while highlighting shared identity can help facilitate partnership synergy. The application of accountability mechanisms, buttressed by managerialism, has eroded trust in the teaching profession in many countries (Fitzgerald 2008). UNESCO. With structured democratic voice, the government cannot be clearly separated from the governed because the people are the government. the students are accountable for one another and their personal behavior. Australian Journal of Primary Health, Having a voice in policy development also contributes to the information component of the enabling environment. Simkins, T. (2000). Providers would give an account of the action, not directly to the clients but to the policy makers. As Dewachter et al. Look back to 1965 and Lyndon Johnson’s passage of his historic education law. Madero, V., & Morris, N. (2016). Second, the inclusion of structured democratic voice in policy and planning processes reduces duplication of efforts, which can lead to fractured accountability. North Dakota University System. Evaluating test-based accountability perspectives: An international perspective. out its functions.Monitoring and Performance-and-results- Stakeholders and schoolEvaluation (M&E) system based M&E system is … Media representation of teachers across five countries. 2018). Symeonidis, V. (2015). Other terms in the education and accountability literature are related to structured democratic voice. (2004). Notwithstanding the challenges involved, two important implications emerge from instances of structuring democratic discussions in education policy and planning. This included protests by the Korean Teachers and Education Workers Union: Governmental policy makers wanted to show people the government’s big efforts to bring innovative change among teachers, but it has resulted in no positive fruit. For example, UNESCO’s International Institute of Educational Planning (IIEP) suggests that government and non-government stakeholders be represented in joint steering committees with formal power to appraise and approve education sector plans (IIEP 2010). Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Journal of Education Policy, Paris: OECD. Drawing on literature about the importance of democratic voice and public participation, we refer to this process as structured democratic voice. ), Education strategy in the developing world: Revising the World Bank’s Education Policy (pp. Partnership synergy also influences the success of structured democratic voice. New York: Routledge. Unfortunately, teacher union participation in education decision making is unusual—not only in Latin America, but in other regions. Analyzing and assessing public accountability: A conceptual framework. A presumed advantage of the short route was its ability to overcome the principal–agent problem (Lateef 2016). ), sustained motivation (do they feel their work is valued and appreciated? When the internal and external stakeholders have no clue of the school’s finances, or if the actual utilization of the school MOOE is not disclosed to staff or parents, pressure would build up which may result in conflicts, doubts or serious administrative complaints. MacIntyre, A. In education, the assumption that these multiple principals represent a homogeneous set of interests (Fox 2015), and express similar demands from educators, is violated. Part of Springer Nature. ii STUDENT NUMBER: … Washington, D.C.: World Bank. 12(2), 151–171. Smith, W. C., & Rowland, J. Education Research International, Social accountability: What does the evidence really say? Govender, L. (2015). It will reduce loss of information due to damage of printed documents and soft copies of files are easily backed up and accessed from any computer. Key elements of educational accountability models. (2014). The WDR accountability framework details relationships between clients, providers, and policy makers (Lateef 2016), and consists of two paths to accountability: the long route and the short route. The sustainability of the approach is demonstrated in the continuation of school performance appraisal meetings in many participating schools. Infused voice involves input from parents who are able to “permeate every level of the educational process” (p. 101). Gindin, J., & Finger, L. (2013). Through the provision of voice to citizens or their representatives, accountability approaches can be re-imagined and the policy enabling environment strengthened, resulting in increased policy ownership and more effective implementation. Just because parents (and others) value their local teachers does not mean teachers, as a profession, are viewed as capable and trustworthy. Link Community Development. Paris: UNESCO. With testing standards constantly changing, traditional grading systems being called into question, and policy changes affecting the way … Background paper for the 2017-18 Global Education Monitoring Report. The final section highlights important implications of the arguments and evidence reviewed. Oxford: Symposium Books. The large bureaucracy, and embedded politics, was expected to ground progress to a halt, making the government largely unresponsive to citizen demands (Edwards 2012). Oxford: Symposium Books. Jansen, J. D. (2002). 2017). Notwithstanding the challenges of creating and implementing internally focused accountability systems, based on shared responsibility and actively engaged stakeholders, such systems are more likely to contribute to real gains in education, including progress on ambitious education targets (Fullan 2011). Brussels: Education International. As more and more students attend school, questions arise as to who is accountable for ensuring the quality of education provided. Journal of Education Policy, They have drawn the support of Democrats and Republicans, leaders of business and the civil rights community, and parents and educators. ), The global testing culture: Shaping education policy, perceptions, and practice (pp. Structured democratic voice can also improve trust in the process if teachers and other educators feel their views and concerns have been heard. In reviewing the principal–agent problem what was originally seen as a two-party relationship has been stretched to include multiple principals (Fox 2015). ), The global testing culture: Shaping educational policy, perceptions, and practice (pp. Volante, L. (2007). Transitions in education policy and interventions for underachievers in South Korea. The many faces of accountability. As seen in Fig. Transparency in oil sector operations allows democratic debate on how oil wealth should be handled. World Bank. Structured democratic voice can be direct democratic voice—for instance, when citizens are invited to directly participate in policy planning through formal consultations or conferences—or it can be representative democratic voice, when annual review processes include representatives who articulate the views of different stakeholder groups. Chou, B. K. P., & Huque, A. S. (2016). In education, trust in the person is generally widespread—parents are often supportive of their child’s teacher(s). Trust is vital in this process. PubMed Google Scholar. 8(1), 94–112. Accountability is a cornerstone of contemporary education policy. This Forum led a democratic process in which the proposed education plan was drafted, and then eventually submitted to the government. No More Duplication. That accountability takes on many forms, all of them beneficial to the teacher, beneficial to the school, and beneficial to the learning environment. transparency and accountability of schools and school systems” (Rudd & Gillard, 2008, p. 5). (2017). access to clear information (do they know what their responsibilities are and how to give an account for their actions?). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. Redeployment in progress. 102, 158–169. Instead, mechanisms interact with, and are influenced by, the social, economic, and political environment. Furthermore, including individuals who have clearly identified responsibilities in teaching and learning is integral to converting policy intentions into practice and subsequent evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Latin American Focus, ABC-CLIO. In 2010, the National Education Conference in Brazil developed final amendments to the reference document circulated by the ministry and submitted the proposed plan to the House of Representatives (Bodião 2016). The 2004 WDR emphasized the importance of public services responding to the demands of local end users, advocated for greater decentralization and control—and more accountability (World Bank 2003). The global transformation toward testing for accountability. For example, higher education roundtables in the United States, supported by The Pew Charitable Trusts, brought government, business, civil society, and education leaders together to discuss the aims and future agenda of higher education across the country (Burke 2005; Nichols 1995). Paris: UNESCO. Brazil. With skill gap analysis, the current level of staff expertise are measured against the required skill for tasks and with those statistics, schools can find ways to improve quality of teaching. Education for people and planet: Creating sustainable futures for all. Correspondence to (Eds.). Another challenge is converting the presence of different actors into exchanges in which all voices are heard and valued. Education policies for raising student learning: The Finnish approach. Bonal, X., & Tarabini, A. Sahlberg, P. (2007). Improving accountability in education: the importance of structured democratic voice. Gorur, R. (2017). In the education system, one of the vital mechanisms to be put in place towards achieving the goals of the school and ensuring quality service delivery to the society is accountability. These global trends—namely, the massification, marketization, decentralization, standardization, and increased documentation of education—reflect the increased importance of education in society. Marginalizing some voices over others can lower the diversity and quality of the conversation and threaten the sustainability of the accountability mechanism. Strategic planning: Organizational arrangements. The national conference, however, lacked actual authority allowing the House of Representatives to disregard some proposals and include others not discussed in the conference at all. It involves officials “ceding genuine voice to the stakeholders” (Pagatpatan and Ward 2017, p. 522) within an environment in which different viewpoints can be discussed openly. 2017). Zengele, T. (2013). To begin, international organizations have increasingly encouraged democratic participation in education planning and evaluation. Second, governments may be disinterested in incorporating non-official voices in the decision-making process. Trust: What is it and Why it Matters for Governance and Education. In South Korea, following the 2008 election of President Myung-Bak, a new education policy implemented in a top-down manner with little input from teachers and students resulted in considerable pushback (Kang 2012). Holvoet, N., & Inberg, L. (2009). Global population of primary school age, 2000–2015. Structured democratic voice, as defined in this article, involves extending the work on democratic voice and public participation to education. 37(1), 7–16. New public management, which highlights the adoption of private management practices in the public sphere, creates a quasi-market in education, reinforcing the authority of managers over service providers and embracing a strong customer orientation (Simkins 2000). 41(2), 335–357. 7–24). With a fuller understanding of their and others’ responsibilities, individuals are more likely to accurately report on the tasks they perform, and feel fairly treated (Cerna 2014). 4 Accountability and transparency – Code of Conduct. The transparency in school administration shouldn’t be taken lightly. (2017). National and international policy makers should focus on ensuring good quality education, as measured by increased student learning (Ansell 2015). Critiques of the 2004 WDR have questioned the dichotomous presentation of seemingly mutually exclusive pathways. 73–91). Oxford: Symposium Books. World Bank projects in education increasingly included financing for learning assessments between 1998 and 2009 (Benavot and Smith 2019). Federal Republic of Brazil. Board members raised concerns that NGOs, included to represent certain marginalized groups, were actually acting in their own self-interests. In C. S. Collins & A. W. Wiseman (Eds. Accessed December 30, 2018, from This mirrors the key principle in participatory democracy that “all parties should be included in reaching governing decisions” (Ryan 2004, p. 449). 2012) and a government led task force in Pakistan to identify high teacher salaries as the crux of the problem (The Pakistan Education Task Force 2011). 2017). Importantly, this was not a one-time CSO intervention. Of the 39 plans evaluated in the 2014–2015 period, only one-third of the JSRs adequately followed up on activities from the previous year (Martinez et al. Kamens, D., & Benavot, A. Your organization can demonstrate its commitment by tying your ethical code to your brand and putting internal controls in place to ensure that each member of your team follows best practices for nonprofits. (2015). Schools collect data on students including their academic scores, character traits and medical records, and are expected to share information to keep parents in the know on matters of their child’s academic and social well being. Journal of Education Policy, 72, 346–361. Bodião, I. D. S. (2016). In the end, teachers were not included in the decision to implement outcomes-based accountability (Jansen 2002). The discussion culminates in a school action plan outlining how each actor can contribute to reaching the jointly identified goals (Visser et al. Inclusive growth in East Asia. Lingard, B., Sellar, S., & Lewis, S. (2017). In M. Bovens, R. E. Goodin, & T. Schillemans (Eds. Transparency and accountability in development cooperation are two sides of the same coin. When an individual is held accountable for multiple tasks, pulling them in opposing directions, and diminishing their ability to fully complete any single responsibility, fractured accountability is like to occur. Journal of School Choice, Ryan, K. E. (2004). UNESCO. Compare, Salmi, J. When the enabling environment goes unfulfilled, individual efforts are stymied. This may be due to frustration with a profession that benefited from political placements in top positions (Zengele 2013) and teacher unions that split over whether they wanted to maintain the inequitable practices of the past or push the progressive movement of the government (Govender 2015). Widespread interest in accountability is reflected in research, where the use of the term increased tenfold in studies published between 1965 and 2000 (Dubnick 2014). In practice JSRs tend to be donor-driven initiatives, and discussions often limited to the effectiveness of donor investment or donor reports to the government (Holvoet and Inberg 2009). Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers. Biesta, G. J. J. The Importance of Transparency in Education. Paris: UNESCO. Tailored to each context, the framework should determine which governance, transparency and accountability mechanisms must be integrated into all COVID-19 public health response planning and design. In W. C. Smith (Ed. This is especially so in the case of abuse of power. Accountability etiquette tends to imply that performance is related to the organizational goals. Cultural change in Asia and beyond: From allegiant to assertive citizens. Effective Joint Sector Reviews as (Mutual) Accountability Platforms. (2011). Over the past two decades JSRs have been used in the health and education sectors, aiming to promote country ownership and mutual accountability. Paris: UNESCO. 1–22). No child, no school, no state left behind: Schooling in the age of accountability. Representativeness was a concern throughout. When actors can contribute to the accountability policies put in place, they are more likely to embrace them (Salmi 2009). Managerialism supports efforts by external evaluators to increase cost-cutting and define clear standards. At such meetings, local authorities are trained on an integrated information system that provides input into electronic school report cards. Lateef, K. S. (2016). Principle and values. Article  28(5), 626–650. Smith, W. C. (2017). Understanding the factors that make public participation effective in health policy and planning: A realist synthesis. In Spain, for example, poor PISA results were used to further strengthen the government’s position on early school tracking (Bonal and Tarabini 2013). ), The global testing culture: Shaping education policy, perceptions, and practice (pp. The rise and fall of worldwide education inequality from 1870 to 2010: Measurement and trends. The GPE report indicates that the Ministry of Finance was only present in about 53% of the reviews. Furthermore, information about the plan and board’s decisions was only available on a website, although less than 30% of the population had internet access in 2010. Supported by a civil society organization (CSO), the model is centered around a school performance appraisal meeting, which works within the government’s monitoring schedule to improve the capacity of those already tasked with data collection through targeted training. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Collaborative processes, where all parties listen to each other, “can both build trust and create incentives for more voice” (Fox 2015, p. 356). When stakeholders are included in the creation and implementation of shared aims, they see them as pertinent to their community. 20, 193–205 (2019). ), Governing education in a complex world (pp. The traditional view of the long route is laid out as political accountability, where authority remains in the hands of policymakers. Political symbolism as policy craft: Explaining non-reform in South African education after apartheid. In T. Burns & F. Koster (Eds. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Asia Journal of Comparative Politics, During this period, participants from unions, academic institutions, scientific and student organizations, as well as organized social movements, came together to establish the National Forum in Defense of Public Schools. Background paper for the 2017–2018 Global Education Monitoring Report. In their evaluation of 77 articles, they identify four factors that underlie the effectiveness of public participation: political commitment, partnership synergy, inclusiveness, and deliberativeness. Unpublished Dissertation. (2017). Journal of Learning for Development, This document sets out the principles for how the accountability system will operate to provide school leaders with greater clarity and transparency on: Site leaders make clear, measurable improvement goals and plans. Brazil represents a well-established example of structured democratic voice in education planning. When multi-party deliberations are applied to education, their impact is palpable: better aligned and consensual aims, less reliance on temporary responses by strongly vested actors, and accountability which is less fractured and more coherent. Educational Theory, The challenges in accountability and transparency in managing school finances are still experienced by most public schools. It can influence the accountability approach chosen and its effectiveness. In General, if accountability is rigorously practiced, it will help change attitudes which will improve academics. 49(3), 292–305. Neo-liberalism, markets and accountability: Transforming education and undermining democracy in the United States and England. Public Administration and Development, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. However, the majority of the work rests on schools, and to encourage successful administration, schools have to take the initiative towards adopting a transparent system. In Brazil, voice without authority was provided for the national conference, undermining the effectiveness of structured democratic voice. (2017). Yet with more children in primary school, international donors are directing fewer resources to this schooling level, and aid to basic education fell steadily from its peak in 2011 (GCE 2015; UNESCO 2016c). Drawing on insight from this process, Brazil’s ministry of education took the lead in developing subsequent plans, including the creation of municipal, state, and national conferences (Bodião 2016). 2). The lack of active participation of all parties and an over emphasis on donor issues undermines the JSRs aim of fostering mutual accountability. Authoritarian governments are less likely to cede decision-making authority in education. (2017). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Globalisation, Societies and Education, Smith, W. C. (2016b). 3(1), 3–15. The World Bank made clear that this was the less desirable option. The multiple principals demand different tasks from the responsible party (Lateef 2016), reducing the potential gains from accountability. Journal of Educational Change, In Uruguay, teachers overcame an externally imposed policy by mobilizing teacher unions to place representatives on the central education board (Gindin and Finger 2013). by Rashidah | Mar 10, 2017 | All, Tips | 3 comments. Collaboration for structured democratic voice. While instances of structured democratic voice in education are relatively rare, this section outlines several notable examples from which lessons can be drawn. For information with regards to schools in your locality please visit our website 2018). A recent review by Pagatpatan and Ward (2017), focusing on decision making in health policy, highlights possible challenges when considering structured democratic voice. Indeed, many actors and institutions play a critical role in achieving a broad educational vision. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. The continuing politics of mistrust: Performance management and the erosion of professional work. Other actors, including civil society representatives, tend to take a back seat, viewing their role as observers rather than participants. pedagogical capacity (have they received the training and support to teach this group of students in this subject?). One avenue to increase trust involves the creation of shared aims and purposes. 50(4), 490–505. Chung, P. J., & Chea, H. (2016). Importantly, Chou and Huque (2016) suggest that increased use of structured democratic voice will help generate greater political will for such opportunities in the future. Rethinking accountability in a knowledge society. 45(2), 184–205. Short route practices supported by the World Bank have influenced a wide array of international organizations including the Brookings Institution, GPE, UNESCO, and Save the Children (Edwards 2016). (2010). (2004). The introduction of externally driven, results-oriented accountability in education has fostered unwanted competition and undermined trust. , education strategy 2020 a broad educational vision in funding enable participants to channel their and. Their concerns about policy initiatives or planned reforms versus long accountability route dichotomy: Using multi-track pathways. The legislation moved through the U.S. House of Representatives with 263 votes V. &. Into practice and subsequent evaluation groups to work well in all contexts or at all.! Pne 2014/2024 suggests asymmetry in application where no approach is expected to be a crucial trademark of the World projects... 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